The most important steps in the process of making a clothing item comes at the beginning with the drafting of the sewing pattern then cutting it properly according to its grainline. If you are a sewing beginner, you might feel a bit overwhelmed by some of the terms used when discussing the process of aligning, pinning and cutting a sewing pattern.
Terms like grainline, selvage edge, cut edge, or cut-on-fold can all seem like a big blur for someone who is just starting out. However, once you understand the importance of these elements when preparing your fabric and eventually cutting your sewing patterns, you'll be glad you put in some extra effort to understand them.
Below, we'll walk you through 4 basic ways to align and cut your sewing patterns according to fabric grain but first, lets start with the basic understanding of grainline and selvage edge- the two most important elements used in the fabric cutting process.
The grainline on a sewing pattern is depicted by a double pointed arrow. It is positioned within the body of the sewing pattern (as opposed to the edge) and essential in the pattern alignment process.
The grainline on the sewing pattern should match the grain of the fabric which can be identified using the selvage edge. Here it is, another term- the selvage edge is depicted by the finished lengthwise edges of the fabric piece. These edges do not fray and are used as a guide in the pattern cutting process.
When the fabric is taken off the bolt or roll, you'll notice it is woven such that it has two selvage edges on both its lengthwise sides. Vise versa, the width edges perpendicular to the selvage edge are called cut edges representing the direction in which fabric is cut off the bolt or roll.
At the fabric store, the length of the fabric (in yards) is measured along the selvage edge and cut perpendicular to it (cut edge). It is incorrect to cut a fabric piece along the selvage edges as this edge should remain intact and is an essential tool for aligning your sewing patterns in the sewing process correctly.
Lengthwise Grain: How to Align A Sewing Pattern On The Lengthwise Grain.
The lengthwise grain of fabric is positioned parallel to the selvage edge. Due to the nature of the lengthwise grain's durability and drape, this is the most common direction in which sewing patterns are cut.
The first step in understanding whether your sewing patterns are meant to be cut on the lengthwise grain or otherwise is by identifying the grainline mark on the sewing pattern. As mentioned above, this is depicted by a double pointed arrow positioned somewhere within the body of the sewing pattern. This arrow is essential in pattern-making and pattern-cutting thus you will seldom come across a professional sewing pattern that doesn't have a grainline marking.
Silk is one of the most luxurious fabrics that often become family air-looms being passed down from generation to generation. To ensure their maximum life span, it is imperative that your silk garments are cared for properly maintaining minimum damage and disintegration over time. Care is perhaps the most important factor in regards to the long term durability and lifespan of a silk clothing item.
While it is easy to fall in love with the feel and look of silk, we can often feel dissuaded by its need for special care and dry cleaning. The good news is, you can actually wash many types of silk fabrics at home if you follow the proper guidelines to avoid damaging them over time.
We'll walk you through all the steps necessary for hand washing your silks bellow, but before we get started it is important to note that there are some extra sensitive silk fabrics that maintain best appearance and quality over time if dry cleaned only.
The following should always be dry cleaned for best results:
-Dupioni (always dry clean)
-Satin Back Crepe
-Beaded and Printed silks
-Most novelty silk fabrics
The main reason dry cleaning is recommended for these particular fabrics is due to their lustrous, shiny characteristic. Washing these silk fabrics by hand or with a washing machine may cause them to lose their luster and texture.
In the case of silk fabrics that feature beading, trims and other decorative features, dry cleaning is perhaps the best choice to avoid damaging these ornamental features.
Printed silk or silk featuring very bright or dark colors would also work best with dry cleaning due to the risk of color fading over time.
If you own silk garments that are lined (especially if the lining features a contrast color) it is recommended that you dry clean these items to avoid the color bleeding through or getting absorbed into the silk fibers.
Washing Instructions for Silk Garments:
If you choose to forego dry cleaning and tackle silk care at home, it is best to wash silk fabrics by hand. Keep in mind that washing silk will change the texture and appearance of the fabric often resulting in a slightly faded color and altered luster. Some people prefer hand washing silks over dry cleaning due to the fact that if done correctly, it adds a soft quality/hand to the fabric.
It is important to note that silk fabric is made of protein fibers. This means that the fibers' structure is composed of protein molecules. For that reason, silk can disintegrate over time due to friction and high temperatures. It is good practice to approach caring for silk the same way you would care for human hair.
Never use chlorine bleach or brighteners on silk fabrics- Chlorine is too harsh for silk fibers to withstand and may often result in immediate damage. For that matter any cleaning agent or product containing alcohol will harm silk items. This includes perfume and lotions that contain alcohol- It is best to let these products dry before putting on a silk garment.
The following silk fabrics can withstand hand washing:
- Crepe de chine
- Sueded Silk
- Fuji Silk
- Various raw silk fabrics
- Mixed content silk fabrics.
For best results, use the following instructions to hand wash silk:
- Use luke warm or cool water for washing. Rinse the garment in cool water.
- Never wash silk in hot water. Heat weakens silk fibers over time.
-If you know that the water in your area contains more minerals resulting in a harder characteristic, you may add a softening agent to the wash. A good water softening agent is borax. Before using other water softening products, check the label (or do a quick online search) to see if they may negatively affect delicate materials.
-Use non-alkaline soap and try to avoid regular detergents. Regular detergents contain harsher ingredients which weaken silk over time. Special detergents for washing delicate fabrics like silks are available on the market- check your local fabric store or try some options available online.
-You may add a drop of hair conditioner or baby shampoo to the rinse for a softer feel. Remember, silk fibers behave very much like human hair and can benefit from gentle conditioning.
-Add some regular distilled white vinegar to the rinse. This will lock in the color and dissolve some of the leftover soap residue which may sometimes cause soap stains when the garment drys.
-Always wash silk garments separately.
-Avoid washing different colors together. Keep the colors separated and rinse in clean water each time especially if you notice the color continues to comes off easily in the wash/rinse.
-It is quite common that some bright colored silks will bleed in the wash. This is normal and is caused by excess dye housed in the fiber molecules. Continue rinsing the garment in clean water until the water appears clean.
-You may add a pinch of salt to the water in the last cool-temperature rinse cycle to set the color. However, avoid dropping the salt directly on the fabric. Add it to the water first and wait for it to dissolve prior to inserting the silk garment.
-Do not leave silk garments in water for too long. Always avoid soaking silk fabrics. A few minutes in water is most recommended.
-When the silk garment is in the water, gently agitate it to clean. Avoid handling the fabric harshly and never ring or twist a silk garment. The best way to remove excess water from the previous wash/rinse is to squeeze it gently.
Machine Washing (only if the care tag/garment allows it):
While hand washing is recommended over machine washing, some silk fabrics may be machine washed. We do however recommend always hand washing just to be on the safe side even if the care tag does allow for machine washing.
If you choose to wash your silk clothing items with a washing machine make sure to only use the delicate or hand wash setting. If your washing machine does not offer a delicate or hand wash setting, wash your silk clothing by hand instead.
Use a mesh bag or pouch to wash your delicate silk fabrics, especially in a top loading washing machine - the agitator is often too harsh for the fragile silk fibers.
As mentioned above, never use bleach, hard detergents or brighteners on your silk clothing. Stick to mild soaps or detergents designed for delicate fabrics only.
Don't forget to always separate your colors and wash silk separately.
How to Dry Silk Clothing Items After Washing:
-Never dry silk in direct sunlight- this not only fades the color but it also causes damage to the sensitive protein fibers.
-Roll silk clothing in a towel or water absorbent rag to extract excess water.
-Don't twist silk clothing to remove water. This not only weakens the fibers but it will also form traces of lines and wrinkles that are difficult to remove when the item drys. Twisting sensitive silk fabrics may also result in unnecessary stretching, as well as loss of structure and shape.
-Hang to dry. Silk usually does not lose its structure from hanging. However, this is on a garment-to-garment basis, so always check the care tag first.
-Do not hang silk garments on wooden racks or wooden hangers. This can often stain the fabric due to the various finishes applied to wood.
-When drying, silk garments should be placed away from a direct heat source. Never put silk directly on a radiator or right next to a heating unit. Keep in mind that excessive heat weakens silk fibers over time.
-Avoid the clothes dryer as much as you can. Silk is very sensitive to heat causing the protein fibers to weaken over time. In some cases, silk garments may actually shrink in the dryer. If you don't have an option to hang your silk clothing, you may dry them in a clothes dryer but make sure it is set to the Air Fluff option.
How To Iron Silk Clothing:
The best time to iron your silk clothing items is when they are slightly damp. Set the iron at the silk or delicate setting which will provide a cooler temperature, and always use a protective cloth in the ironing process.
Avoid spraying or wetting the fabric locally as this may result in staining or the formation of white rings on the surface of the fabric.
If your silk garment features decorative elements like beading, sequins and trimming you should avoid ironing all together. These fabrics are best left to the dry cleaner and if cleaned properly, should not require pressing.
Avoid using direct steam from a steamer in close proximity to the surface of the silk fabric. Most often, silk wrinkles release on their own either during wear or by hanging the garment for a period of time (usually overnight).
You may use the old bathroom-steam trick by hanging the silk garment in the bathroom during a shower or while hot water is running. The subtle steam and humidity is enough to relax the silk fibers and release most wrinkles.
Generally, the best way to avoid wrinkles in your silk garments is by following the correct drying process. If the garment is hanged properly after washing, it usually releases wrinkles slowly in the drying process.
Spot Cleaning Silk Clothing:
Silk fabrics can be a bit tricky to spot clean. Their ability to be spot cleaned efficiently depends mainly on the type of silk fabric/weave it is. Quite often, spot cleaning alone can leave rings or water stains on more sensitive silk fabrics especially those with a higher luster and sheen.
The safest way is to spot clean a tough stain with cool water and a gentle soap, after which you should proceed with regular hand washing to avoid localized water stains. As reiterated above, never use bleach to spot clean silk fabrics.
Avoid using stain-removal pens and harsh solutions as this may damage the silk or leave permanent discoloration on the spot surface.
If the simple water and mild soap option does not work, consult with your dry cleaners for the safest stain-removal option. It is better not to take the risk at home. A dry cleaner will most likely have more knowledge and experience regarding this topic, including access to appropriate industrial products not familiar to us.
Tips For Storing, Travel and Long-Term Care of Silk Fabric:
Keep silk garments in a cool (room temperature), dry environment to protect the fabric's sensitive protein fibers. When traveling, you may pack silk like you would any other garment either by folding or leaving it on a travel hanger. If you are attempting to save space, don't roll the garment too tightly as this may pull on the sensitive silk fibers and damage them in the process. When you get to your destination, make sure to take the silk garment out of your luggage promptly and hang it overnight to release wrinkles. As an even more efficient option, use the bathroom-steam trick for a faster, smoother result.
Silk Dry Cleaning Options: The Eco-friendly Green Way.
As mentioned above, dry cleaning is recommended for cleaning most silk fabrics. These days, many people steer away from dry cleaning not only due to the cost but also the effects of dry cleaning chemicals on the environment. The main agent used by traditional dry cleaners is tetrachloroethylene. This most commonly used solvent has raised questions in recent years as its level of toxicity is enough to have an environmental impact. Hydrocarbons are a bit milder but also used as dry cleaning solvents in about 10-15 % percent of dry cleaning. Although hydrocarbons are weaker than tetrachloroethylene, they are considered pollutants.
If you own silk garments that require dry cleaning yet you are concerned with the environmental effects of traditional dry cleaning, we suggest choosing Eco-friendly, green dry cleaners. They use much safer cleaning solutions like silicone-based agents and carbon dioxide (CO2). Environmentally conscious dry cleaning facilities are available in most cities and becoming more wide-spread with every passing year. CO2 also offers less fabric shrinkage than traditional cleaning solutions. When dry cleaning silk garments, always make sure that the dry cleaner you choose to work with is experienced with cleaning silk fabrics.
For more information green dry cleaning you may refer to the Environment Protection Agency's website at https://www.epa.gov.
If you are looking for Eco-friendly dry cleaners in your area, enter your zip code and check the directory at: http://www.nodryclean.com/
To learn more about dry cleaning with Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and other green solvents, please refer to: https://www.greenamerica.org/green-living/green-dry-cleaning
Rumor has it that sleeping on a silk pillowcase is much easier on the skin, possibly reducing wrinkles and skin irritations during the night. The constant tossing and turning on a regular pillowcase doesn't hurt your skin by any means but it certainly adds to those sleep wrinkles we sometimes end up with in the morning. Although they go away in a matter of minutes (and sometimes even hours), it's always a good idea to stay away from things that unnecessarily wrinkle or irritate the skin, even if only temporarily.
If you do a quick Google search for "how to prevent face wrinkles" you'll find that one of the suggestions listed is sleeping on a silk pillowcase. Why? Well, silk fabric has a smooth, soft quality and doesn't form deep fabric wrinkles like cotton does. This allows the face to rest more flat and maintain a smooth surface throughout the night. In addition, silk is made of 100% natural fibers which means it is just as absorbent as cotton, allowing the skin to breath comfortably during the night. Speaking of comfort, silk feels extremely soft and luxurious on the skin which certainly contributes to a better night's sleep.
Now let's talk money: Silk is a more expensive fabric which means if you want to switch to silk pillowcases, it might turn out to be a bit of an investment. If you're not ready to dig into your savings just yet, no problem! Being the resourceful, crafty person that you are, you can actually make your own silk pillowcases. All you have to do is get the fabric and take out your trusty sewing machine. We'll show you the easiest way to do so bellow, but first a few things to remember about silk fabric:
1. Silk fibers can deteriorate with too much friction and heat which means washing it in warm to hot water is a big no-no. If your washer has a hand-wash setting always use it to wash your silks and makes sure the water is cold or cool. To be on the safe side, you can always gently wash silk by hand with soap or very gentle detergent.
2. When shopping for silk fabric, check the label for machine washable silk. Yes, there is such a thing and we have the goods to prove it. An example of machine-washable silk is a sueded silk which has been sand washed in an industrial setting about 5000 times to create a soft, "fuzzy"coating. This treatment allows for the silk to withstand much greater tolerance for friction which makes it perfect for everyday clothing and silk pillowcases. That being said, you should still take some precautions when machine washing it: Cold to cool water in addition to the most gentle setting you have available on your washing machine.
3. When sewing with silk, especially silk charmeuse and chiffon, it is recommended that instead of a zig-zag stitch or serging along the raw edges of the seam you use a french seam finish. This technique will not only ensure that the edges don't fray over time, but also creates an extremely high-quality, durable finish which should last you over a long period of time.
Note: If you have an overlock machine at home, you can certainly use that to finish the inside edges but we recommend using a more dense stitch setting and make sure the needles are sharp enough to avoid pulling on the sensitive silk fibers.
If a zig zag stitch is all that's available to you, we recommend a french seam for your pillowcases instead- It is not difficult and we'll show you how to do it bellow.
In this tutorial, we'll guide through both the french seam method and serging so that you get a better understanding of both.
Sewing The Silk Pillowcase
1. Get precise measurements from a pillowcase you already own:
Using a measuring tape, measure along the width and length of an existing pillowcase. A standard pillowcase is 19" wide by 29" long.
2. Add seam allowance to both measurements.
You will need to add 1/2" in seam allowance to the width measurement which will give you a total of 19 1/2".
Add an extra 5" to the lengthwise measurement totaling 34". The reason why a longer seam allowance is needed for the length is due to the fact that the pillowcase is folded and stitched to create the illusion of a wide band along the opening. The 5" excess also includes the 1/2" allowance necessary to sew the seam on the opposite end of the opening.
3. Fold the silk fabric lengthwise, ensuring that you have enough fabric for a 19.5" x 34" rectangle.
Using a ruler and a fabric water-soluble pencil, draw a straight line perpendicular to the bottom fold, about 1" away from the edge. This will ensure that the pillow has a straight side edge.
4. Starting at the fold, measure 19.5" inches up and mark a dash line with your fabric pencil.
Repeat this step at different areas of the fold to achieve an alignment of dash lines which will eventually be connected into a straight line.
5. Starting at the vertical line you drew initially in Step 3, align the measuring tape parallel to the lengthwise fold and mark a dash line at 34". Repeat the step at different areas of the vertical line thus marking an alignment of vertical dashes which will form a straight line.
6. Using a ruler and your fabric pencil, connect all the dash lines vertically and horizontally on the fabric resulting in a 19.5" x 34" rectangle.
7. Before cutting, place a few pins vertically on the inside of the rectangle. Silk has a fluid drape and is more difficult to cut. Pinning the fabric on the inner edge will hold the two layers of fabric together so that both receive an even cut.
8. Carefully cut the rectangular shape following along the pencil markings.
The result should be an evenly cut, double-layer rectangle with a lengthwise fold as displayed in the image above. You may now remove the stability pins.
9. Working with one of the two side edge (19.5" width), fold the raw edge of the fabric at 1/2" towards the wrong side of the fabric and iron this fold to stabilize.
10. Fold this edge once more towards the wrong side of the fabric at 4" this time. Use a ruler to ensure that the fold measures 4" throughout. Place pins perpendicular to the top fold to hold the layers in place.
11. Iron the bottom fold for more stability.
12. Using the pinned top fold as a guide, machine stitch at about 1/8" away from it.
The opening edge of the pillowcase is now complete!
You should have a horizontal straight stitch visible on the outside of the pillowcase, while the inside is clean finished with a top-stitched fold.
13. Working on the face side of the fabric, pin the two layers of the second side edge (19.5" width, parallel to the pillowcase's opening) horizontally as shown. This edge will be finished with a french seam.
The total seam allowance is 1/2".
14. Straight stitch at 1/4" seam allowance from the raw edge. Make sure the face of the fabric is positioned on the outside.
15. Iron the seam allowance excess towards one side making sure to iron on the wrong side of the fabric (clean side of the seam).
16. Fold the seam to enclose the raw edge and iron this fold for stability. Place pins horizontally along the fold to hold it in place properly.
The face side of the fabric should be on the inside of this fold.
17. Machine stitch at 1/4" seam allowance from the fold's edge. This stitch will enclose the raw edge of the seam allowing for both outside and inside edges to be clean finished.
18. Working on the face side of the fabric, iron the folded seam allowance pointing to whatever direction you choose.
19. On the inside of the pillowcase (wrong side of the fabric), pin the final lengthwise seam horizontally. The face sides of the fabric should be touching.
Make sure opening edge and the fold lines at the pillowcase's opening are matched properly on both layers. The best way to do this is to align the fold lines and place a pin horizontally right at the location where they match.
20. Straight stitch at 1/2" seam allowance.
21. To clean finish the seam, apply a serging/overlock stitch along the raw edge. As mentioned above, silk is made of very fine, dainty fibers which requires thinner, sharper needles and a denser overlock stitch. If you don't have a serging machine, you may use a regular zig-zag stitch but make sure you have it set at the densest setting and your sewing machine needle is sharp and appropriate for silk fabric.
For a highly durable finish however, we recommend that you use a french seam on both seam edges.
22. As a last step, iron the seam's serged edge towards one side for a smooth, professional finish.
One of the greatest challenges when it comes to learning how to sew your own clothing, is understanding fabric drape, weight and which ones to choose for a particular design. This is certainly a skill that is learned through experience and trial and error. In fact, you should expect to make lots of mistakes (and learn form them) in the beginner stages of learning how to sew. The most important thing to remember is not to give up and that it is normal to feel uncomfortable with certain techniques or make errors that force you to start again- it's all part of the process! Luckily, there are some concepts you can learn beforehand that will save you from making some of those frustrating mistakes. When it comes to fabrics, theory and practice work best together. In this fabric tutorial, we'll give you the fundamentals on some basic types of fabrics and their best use. We'll also include physical characteristics like drape, sewing difficulty and ironing practices.
Distinguishing between blouse weight, dress weight, shirting, bottom weight, suiting, and coating.
To master the basics of fabric, it is important to gain a better understanding of the various weights available. Fabric weight refers to how heavy and thick a fabric is. Sheer, thin fabrics are usually very lightweight while bulky, thick coating fabric is one of the most heavyweight. To make it easier, textiles are divided into the following basic categories according to weight, thickness and structure:
Blouse weight: The lightest of all the weights, blouse weight fabrics are usually very thin, drapey and could be sheer or semi-sheer. As the term suggests, this category is used for various styles of tops like blouses and lightweight shirts. As you'll soon learn, blouse weight fabrics are not appropriate for styles like dresses (unless used in combination with a dress weight) because their sheer lightweight nature usually can't withstand the wear and proper drape necessary for a dress' functionality.
Shirting: This is usually a cotton fabric that is thinner and lighter weight but has a higher thread count. A higher thread count creates a more smooth, lustrous cotton fabric with better draping capabilities. Shirting fabric can also be yarn dyed which creates a chambray-like effect. While shirting can sometimes be used for dresses, it is found more often with classic button down tops. While some shirting fabrics can be categorized as dress weights, some thinner, semi-sheer shirting may not always be appropriate for use with dresses.
Dress Weight: This category includes a variety of different fabric types (and contents). Dress weight fabrics fall in the category of light to medium weight fabrics and are usually carrying a little more drape. Depending on sheerness and durability, blouse and dress weights can intermingle, but dress weights are usually not sheer or semi-sheer and can withstand more wear. Some examples of dress weights are charmeuse, crepe de chine, rayon challis, and most cotton and linen medium-weight plain weaves.
Bottom Weight: Bottom weight fabrics are used on a number of bottoms from various pant styles to shorts and skirts. They are called bottom weight because they have a medium-weight thickness and provide more structure and durability. Functionality and durability is an important factor for bottom weights especially when used for constructing pants and shorts which need to withstand lots of pulling at the seam and maintain proper stability around the waist and hips. Some bottom weights can have more drape than others depending on the fabric type and content, but most importantly, they are almost always medium weight and never semi-sheer or sheer.
Suiting: As the name suggests, suiting fabric is used to construct a variety of different tailored items, from business suits and trousers to a number of structured skirts and blazers. Suiting fabric can be anywhere from medium to heavy weight depending on the weave of the fibers. The main characteristic for suiting fabric is that it has to have enough structure to achieve a more tailored cut. It is not drapey or flowey but rather used in straight, more linear silhouettes. The suiting category includes a variety of different fabric types like twill, jacquard, boucle, etc. Fiber contents range from wool to silk, cotton and linen, to name just a few. The content can be a blend of different fibers or consist of a single content fiber throughout.
Coating: Just as it sounds, coating fabric is mostly used for outerwear like jackets and coats. It is usually a heavier weight fabric but can sometimes be more medium weight depending on fabric weave and content. Wool, acrylic and synthetic/natural blends are most commonly used in coating fabric. Some basic examples include tweed, boucle, medium-to-heavy weight wool crepe, and thicker/heavier plain weave fabrics. Coating fabric is usually more structured, less drapey and appropriate for more tailored styles. Coating is usually more suitable for fall/winter clothing and is a warmer insulator and windbreaker than other fabrics (depending on weave and content).
Difference between fabric content and fabric type.
As a beginner, differentiating between fabric content and fabric type can be a bit confusing. Even years after sewing, you may still be misusing the two unwillingly. The good news is, if you get a strong initial understanding of what these two terms mean and how to use them correctly, you'll make it much easier to shop for fabrics and even be able to order basic fabrics online before actually getting your hands on them. So what is the difference between fabric type and fabric content? As the terms suggest, fabric content has to do with fiber composition while fabric type pertains to the weave and construction of the textile. For example, cotton or silk refers to the content while jacquard and lace relate to the type of fabric weave. Often times, these two terms are used together. For instance: "100% Cotton Jacquard" describes the content and the weave of the fabric giving you all the information necessary to understand it thoroughly. In this post, we'll focus on the basic fabric types you should know as a sewing beginner. If you want to learn more about fabric content check out our previous post on fibers and basic fabric content.
Basic Woven Fabric Types You Should Know
1. Plain Weave Fabrics
A plain weave is the most basic and common of all fabric weaves. In a plain weave the weft and warp threads intersect in a criss-crossing pattern, each one going under and over the other. Plain weaves are divided into two major categories: basket weave and balanced plain weave. Balanced plain weaves are woven with threads of the same thickness while a basket weave is constructed using threads that are double the thickness in the warp or weft. Plain weaving is the most versatile way to construct textiles creating a finish that is suitable for both apparel and upholstery. The great aspect of a plain weave is that you can control density, content, and thickness thus achieving a variety of different types of textiles from heavyweight and dense like duck cloth to very lightweight and sheer like chiffon.
Challis is a lightweight fabric that is made of a single fiber type, usually rayon. Originally, it was a silk and wool blend but today it is the most attainable in man-made fibers like rayon. Challis is easy to recognize by it's fluid draping capability (especially when made out of rayon). It is soft and has a great swing but when constructed from rayon it is not the most durable. Rayon challis is more affordable than other challis content which is why it is commercially used in summer dresses, rompers and blouses.
Rayon challis irons beautifully but it wrinkles very easily as well. It can be a little difficult to manage while cutting due to its very fluid, soft drape. You should use a sharp, thin needle at a shorter stitch length when sewing rayon challis.
Duck or duck cloth is a durable canvas fabric made of a plain weave usually with a cotton fiber content. Duck fabric is exceptionally durable and more heavyweight, making it suitable for sneakers, uniforms, work wear, duvet covers and window treatments. It is also commonly used for more industrial purposes like tents, sails and sandbags. Duck is much more tightly woven than regular canvas which makes it more wind repellent and extremely resistant to wear and tear. It's weave is composed of 2 yarns in the warp and 1 yarn horizontally in the weft which gives it a textured quality. Duck fabric has a very structured, stiff drape and is not usually appropriate for dresses and loose blouses..
Depending on its weight and thickness duck cloth requires use of heavier equipment such as a sturdier pair of scissors, thicker needles and a more heavy duty sewing machine. It requires more sturdy finishes like flat fell seams or top stitching in order to keep the seams flat and stable. Ironing should be done at the highest setting (depending on content) but because it is such and industrial textile, ironing alone may not be enough to keep the seams flat.
Chambray is different than other plain weave fabrics because it is a yarn dyed textile. What this means is that the weft and warp threads are dyed or processed individually before being woven together. The warp threads are colored and weft threads are left white which creates a denim-like pattern. In fact, chambray and denim are often confused for one another but the difference is in the type of weave: Chambray is a plain weave fabric while denim uses a twill weave. That being said, chambray has a thinner more light weight draping quality than denim which is usually stiffer, has more structure and is more durable. Chambray is used a lot in both menswear and womens wear for casual button down shirts, dresses, shorts and lightweight trousers for year-round wear. It is usually constructed of cotton, sometimes featuring a cotton/polyester blend.
Chambray is a fairly easy fabric to sew and cut due to its matte surface and more structured drape. As it is true for most cotton fabrics, chambray is easy to iron and handle but it does wrinkly quite easily.
Chiffon is a plain weave fabric featuring a lightweight, sheer quality. It is most commonly found in silk, nylon and polyester, the latter being one of the most inexpensive and commercially available. Chiffon fabrics, especially those made of silk, can sometimes be constructed of a crepe plain weave which gives it more surface texture and a slight stretch. It has a flowing drape that works beautifully on evening wear, bridal, lingerie and elegant loose blouses and dresses as overlays or sheer cut-outs.
Chiffon is one of the most difficult fabrics to work with due to its very lightweight nature and fluid drape. It requires a special method for cutting in order to keep it stable and more manageable. If you are working with chiffon at home, make sure you cut very carefully along your pattern. When it comes to sewing, you will need a very sharp, thin needle and a shorter stitch length, making sure the tension on your machine is properly adjusted. If your needle is not sharp or thin enough, some threads will pull during stitching. Since it is an easily-fraying fabric and a serging or zig zag stitch might be too rough for chiffon's gentle structure, a french seam is suggested for finishing raw edges.
Eyelet is usually made of cotton plain weave fabric featuring cutouts that are reinforced with a dense loop stitch and arranged to create a decorative pattern. Flower and geometric motifs are the most common in eyelet fabrics. The cutouts can either be positioned on the entire surface of the fabric or just along the edges. Eyelet fabrics have a more structured, crisp drape due to the fact that they are usually made of plain weave cotton. It is used a lot in womens wear to create summer dresses, skirts and blouses and can sometimes feature a combination of embroidery detail.
Eyelet is not a difficult fabric to cut and sew and it usually irons beautifully due to its high cotton content. It is a breathable fabric that creates comfortable and feminine spring/summer wear.
Satin is a type of weave that features each warp thread interlacing over 4 weft threads creating a lustrous, shiny finish on the face side. Because it is not a balanced weave, satin fabrics are more prone to raveling when cut. A higher thread count is usually a lot more durable and wind repellent while a lower thread count can be weak and more slippery. Satin fabrics are very common in silk and polyester blends. They come in different weights and are used for making lingerie, linings, drapery, and more formal dresses and blouses in the evening wear and bridal categories.
Because of its very shiny surface, satin weaves can sometimes be difficult to work with under the presser foot due to the fact that the layers of fabric slip away from each other in the stitching process. Pin more densely to ensure that the fabric is kept even throughout. Use a shorter stitch length and check your sewing machine tension balance to make certain that the seams don't bulk or pucker as this can show more easily on the face side of satin fabric. For silk satin, make sure to use an ironing cloth and make sure your iron is at the correct setting or the fabric content.
Charmeuse fabric is constructed of a satin weave which means that the warp threads cross over the weft threads at a larger ratio (4 or more threads). This creates a lustrous finish on the face side of the fabric and a matte finish on the back side. Charmeuse fabrics are usually made of silk or polyester. Just like silk crepe de chine, silk charmeuse is used for higher end dresses and blouses featuring a beautiful, fluid drape and soft hand. Charmeuse fabrics don't have a lot of structure but more of a slinky, clingy fit. It is used for evening gowns, loose dresses, blouses and lingerie. Charmeuse is especially suitable for bias cuts (cutting diagonally on the fabric) which creates a very soft, beautiful drape with a slight stretch.
Charmeuse can sometimes be difficult to work with due to its slippery, difficult-to-handle characteristic during cutting and when pinned. You should be careful when stitching it on your sewing machine by making sure your tension is properly adjusted and your stitch length is a shorter length. Because of its slick, shiny finish, charmeuse fabric (especially if made of polyester) can pucker and bulk at the seam creating an unprofessional, uneven finish- make sure you use proper care when working with it.
9. Crepe De Chine
Crepe de chine is a light-to-medium weight fabric mostly used for blouses and dresses. It has a matte finish and it is most commonly found in silk or polyester fibers. Its weaving creates a crinkled, crimped effect featuring a soft hand and elegant drape. Silk crepe de chine is suitable for more expensive, elevated styles creating more high end garments. Polyester crepe de chine (or Poly CDC) is used quite often in less expensive, easy-to-wash blouses and lining.
Silk crepe de chine can be a little challenging to work with if you are a sewing beginner due to its very fluid draping capability. The fabric shifts around underneath the pattern when being cut and pinned so being careful and gentle when handling it is required. We recommend working with a polyester crepe de chine initially to get a feel for it first. Polyester fibers are not as fine as silk fibers which will make a poly crepe much easier to work with and a lot less expensive. Care must also be taken when stitching this fabric on your sewing machine. Make sure you use a very thin needle for lightweight fabrics, a shorter stitch length and properly adjusted tension on your sewing machine.
Boucle fabric has a unique texture which is achieved by intertwining two threads together one of which is at a looser tension thus allowing the two threads to twist together creating textured loops on the surface of the fabric. This is a very common fabric used with acrylic and wool fibers and especially common in the suiting and coating categories. It can be medium-to-heavy weight depending on the fibers, weave and thickness of the threads. Because it usually creates a thicker more bulky finish, boucles are often used for suits, jackets, blazers, coats and cardigans. The boucle technique can also be woven into a knit fabric which is used on a variety of different thicker knit sweaters and dresses.
Boucle fabric is easy to sew and cut because it is able to maintain its structure and alignment. It is easy to stitch due to the fact that it's texture allows for the layers to connect together and not separate during machine stitching. Because of it's busy weave, boucle fabric is also able to hide certain tension and stitching errors. If working with a wool boucle (or any wool fabric) always use an ironing cloth and set your iron at a lower setting when pressing the seams. Boucle fabrics may also unravel quite easily so taking appropriate precaution to clean finish all the seams durably is a must.
Lace can be made of thread or yarn and features a web-like woven pattern. There are a variety of different techniques for making lace as well as a number of different lace styles. To list just a few, there is: crochet lace, needle lace, machine lace, embroidered lace, and even chemical lace. The types of lace available has to do with the techniques used for making it. The most commonly found lace nowadays is cotton and polyester content which can often be mixed with nylon fibers for a durable weave. Silk and wool lace is also available, although these were more commonly used in the past. The most inexpensive and easy to find lace is machine lace which comes in a variety of different patterns, weaves, textures and weights. Lace is used a lot in bridal wear, as overlays in blouses and dresses, and drapery. Laces can be stretch or non-stretch depending on the weave and added spandex content.
Working with lace ranges from very easy to extremely challenging and it all depends on the type and content of the weave. If it is thin, stretchy or beaded it will be a lot more difficult and time consuming to sew and manage. When lace fabrics are cut, you should be very careful not to stretch the rounder areas of the garment being made (neckline, armholes, etc.). You should always stay-stitch promptly after cutting out your patterns making sure not to pull on the vulnerable curved edges in the process.
Twill is a type of weave that is characterized by diagonally positioned lines which are achieved by overlapping the weft thread over one or several warp threads then skipping a steps down between each row to create a unique diagonal pattern also known as wale. A twill fabric can be even-faced or warp-faced. An even-faced twill fabric means that the threads are woven so that both the face and back sides are reversible and essentially look the same. In an even-faced twill, there is the same amount of warp and filling on both sides of the fabric. Examples of even-faced twills include houndstooth and herringbone. A warp-faced twill has more pronounced warp threads creating more raised diagonal lines (wales) on the face side of the fabric and is most commonly used for denim, gabardine and chino fabrics (to name just a few).
Twill fabric is very durable and used a lot in everyday bottoms like jeans, khaki pants, and a variety of different trousers and functional skirts. It is also common in outerwear, usually creating a more casual look. Twill fabrics are found in a number of different fiber contents but are most common in cotton, wool, and polyester, sometimes featuring a spandex blend.
Depending on the weight and content, twill fabric is usually easy to work with and it irons well.
Houndstooth fabric is characterized by a broken checkered print constructed from an even-faced, 2:2 twill weave. Houndstooth is a classic print used traditionally in tailoring for both mens and womens suiting and coating items. The traditional houndstooth print has also been successfully adopted by the accessory and upholstery/bedding industries. Houndstooth is also known by the name of dog's tooth.
Like houndstooth, herringbone is also characterized by a specific pattern/print which displays a series of V shapes resembling a broken zig-zag arranged symmetrically on the surface of the fabric. A herringbone print resembles the V-shaped print created by a regular knitting stitch (although it is not a knit fabric). It is an even-faced twill woven fabric usually consisting of wool content and used most commonly for suiting and coating styles.
Note: Tweed is a type of wool fabric that is very often woven in a herringbone pattern.
Tweed is a textured, usually woolen fabric that is woven in a more tightly woven plain or twill weave displaying a mix of color tones. You might know tweed fabric from traditional English countryside clothing used for hunting, shooting and riding horses. It is a wearable fabric that doesn't soil easily and is just as warm as it is comfortable. Tweed is often constructed in a herringbone pattern and very commonly found in neutral colors like shades of gray, brown, black and white. Tweed fabric is used most often for coating and suiting items due to its fall/winter weight and thickness. Tweed is very common in the use of outerwear and blazers as well as fall/winter bottoms like tailored trousers and skirts. It is available in medium to heavy weight options depending on it's content and construction.
Due to its more structured, stable drape, tweed fabric is easy to pin and cut. It is fairly easy to work with under the presser foot and its textured woolen characteristic is able to hide minor sewing errors at the seam. Since it is usually made of wool fabric, precaution should be taken when ironing it by making sure your iron is at the appropriate setting and an ironing cloth is layered on top. When working with wool, it is recommended that you also pre-shrink the fabric in the dryer before cutting out your sewing patterns.
Pique fabric features a type of weave which forms cord-like, raised structures on the surface of the fabric. This pattern comes in a variety of different geometric shapes including birdseye, cord, honeycomb, and waffle. It is usually woven out of cotton, linen or a cotton-polyester blend, and most commonly found in men's dress shirts, women's dresses, drapery, upholstery and kitchen wear. Pique fabric is very often used for kitchen towels and kitchen drapery. Because of its textured pattern and absorbent nature, pique absorbs and retains starch much better than other textiles, allowing for a more crisp, firm structure. Pique ranges in weight from very light to much heavier waffle cloth.
It is a fairly easy textile to work with and cut. Like any cotton or linen fabric, pique is easy to iron and stitch on the machine. The end result is usually a structured product that is crisp and lacks a fluid drape like that normally found in silk fabrics.
Gabardine is a warp-faced twill fabric that is woven very tightly creating a durable, tough textile. Gabardine is used for making uniforms, trousers, suits, and windbreakers. Due to its very tightly woven structure, gabardine is moisture wicking and a wind repellent but is not a particularly warm or breathable fabric. It is most commonly found in polyester, worsted wool or cotton blends and comes in mostly medium-weight options. It has a crisp drape that is most suitable for structured items. In addition, gabardine does not wrinkle easily making it perfect for everyday work wear.
Gabardine is easy to work with due to its structured nature. It is stable to pin and sew and irons well. However, you should make sure the tension balance on your sewing machine is adjusted properly and that you are using a medium length stitch so that the fabric doesn't pucker at the seam.
As the most commonly used twill woven fabric, denim is durable, comfortable and withstands daily wear over a long period of time. Denim is a warp-faced fabric that looks different on the face side than it does on the back. It is made of 100% cotton or a cotton/spandex blend for added stretch. As the most versatile fabric, denim is a staple featured in many different weights. It is used for trendy jackets, jeans, dresses and button down shirts both in menswear and women's wear. When denim became available, it was used as a comfortable, durable fabric for miners in the 18th century. Its breathable and durable nature provided (as it does nowadays) for a suitable fabric able to withstand long wear while maintaining maximum amount of comfort and flexibility.
Denim fabric can also withstand a variety of different finishes from bleaching to tumbling and various chemical surface treatments. It is that versatility that adjusts to any style and casual setting.
Denim is a fairly easy fabric to work with and is usually finished with flat fell or top stitched seams. When working with a heavy, industrial-weight denim using more heavy duty supplies and sewing machine works best. A longer stitch length should also used for thicker denims.
Jacquard fabric is woven on a jacquard loom and is unique in the fact that the design, however intricate it may be, is woven directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process instead of being dyed or printed on. Jacquard fabrics can be woven or knit and include a variety of different patterns and designs, from picture-like prints to geometric shapes. A jacquard weave has a textured, raised quality and is available in different weights and drape capabilities depending on the content used. Speaking of content, jacquard fabrics can be found in almost all basic fibers including silk, cotton, wool, polyester and various blends. It is one of the most universally used fabrics, especially for suiting, coating, casual to formal sportswear, upholstery and window treatments. In addition, its tightly woven structure offers a durable weave making it appropriate for everyday apparel and other industrial uses.
For the most part, jacquard is easy to work with contingent on its structure and content. In many cases, jacquard fabrics can fray easily so finishing the raw edges properly is a must for a quality finish. Its textured nature allows it to be a lot more forgiving in the sewing process, hiding small stitch errors. Depending on its content it is usually easy to iron although precaution should be taken when working with delicate fiber jacquard.
Seersucker is a puckered, usually 100% cotton fabric that features uniformly raised square/rectangular and sometimes oval shapes. This is a achieved by strategically loosening the threads during weaving to create a puckered surface. It is most commonly found in a striped or checkered white print and used for spring and summer wear. In addition to its cotton content, seersucker fabric wicks away from the body when worn due to its crinkled texture. It usually doesn't require surface ironing because it's weave already has a naturally wrinkled quality. While seersucker is a light to medium weight fabric it does not have a fluid drape like challis or charmeuse for example. It is a more structured fabric used in the construction of shorts, summer trousers, dresses, and casual suits. It is also commonly found in drapery and some upholstery.
Due to its structure, seersucker is easy to work with and manage during the sewing process. The fabric puckering creates a texture that is forgiving to small sewing errors and it irons beautifully at the seams due to its mostly cotton content. The layers of fabric are able to stay in place easily during stitching because of its textured, matte surface.
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